Neolithic: Evolution of Man in the Neolithic Age

Neolithic means “new stone” and defines the second period of the Stone Age. At first, the term seemed to indicate a time when the tools, instead of being made raw, started using a polishing process.

Currently, the Neolithic term designates a period of profound transformation in the development of cattle farms and agriculture. The importance of these new food production systems is such that we often talk about the “Neolithic Revolution.”

The period of the Neolithic Age is not the same for all geographical areas, but it is estimated that it began between 10,000 and 8,000 years BC.

In this age, social life, in terms of traditions and customs, began to stabilize after the adaptation period in the Mesolithic where a progressive removal of the nomadic life of the hunter-collector took place.

Practically there have been grazing practices, domestic animals, textiles, ceramics, and the cultivation of the earth. Undoubtedly, there have been revolutionary lifestyle changes.

The area of Neolithic crop expansion does not correspond to the Paleolithic era, but it is heading south of Europe, around the Mediterranean coasts and especially to the Near East, where it first appears.

The early Neolithic coincides with the end time of the last Ice Age. The withdrawal of the ice to the north meant a substantial change of the fauna, disappearing some almost fundamental species to support the old hunters.

On the other hand, the new milder climate, and a new seasonal rhythm favor the emergence of agriculture.

painting with people and animals from the Neolithic age

Farming and livestock practices implied the emergence of a new economic system, that is, a new relationship with the nature in which man stops being a mere exploiter to become a producer.

The change of economy in the Neolithic age also means the occurrence of surpluses, ie a higher production than what can be consumed in a simple subsistence system.

As a result, people in the Neolithic gained the quality of life because they did not need to dedicate their whole time to the pursuit of their existence, being able to use part of their time to other activities, including purely aesthetic ones.

Neolithic Revolution

Economy and society in the Neolithic

Considering the climate change and the disappearance of important animals for their food, the prehistoric man was forced to look for other forms of feeding other than hunting and gathering. Agriculture and livestock have emerged in a slow and difficult to locate process.

It seems that in today’s Jordan there were the first villages dedicated to agriculture. It is not known whether it has spread to Europe or Asia or whether the emergence of agricultural practices has been simultaneous in several different outbreaks. In a short time, new production techniques have been used throughout the Mediterranean and in various parts of Asia.

The transition from the prey of the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic producer is the most important change in the Prehistory. New productive activities have brought about new forms and social structures.

With agriculture and animal husbandry, stable settlements, first housing construction, first settlements with a significant number of inhabitants, an authentic division of labor, the emergence of forms of government, class differences based on possession of wealth, trade, military power, and the religious power.

People in the Neolithic who did not hunt, settled in places where the land was suitable for agriculture. Domestication of certain animal species meant ensuring food supply (milk and meat) and raw materials (skin, fat, and bones) without having to change places.

Foods no longer limit the number of people who formed a clan or tribe, and human groups began to be more numerous.

The new communities, both because of the number of their members and because of the different tasks arising from the new productive system, soon need an authority to regulate the activity and organize the village as a full owner of the land and the livestock.

Thus, in the Neolithic age, political power emerged as an organizational necessity that manifested itself differently in each area (governor families, the choice of the most qualified or perhaps the most powerful).

The different capacity to work or the desire to show power could be the cause of the emergence of private property, and thereby the differentiation in classes through the possession of wealth (some excavated and studied villages show remarkable differences between some houses and others, which seems to demonstrate the existence richer families).

The strongest in each city were responsible for property protection (a division of labor), creating a new military power.

Agriculture in the Neolithic Age

The possession of goods, the result of good harvests or of more productive animals must have presumed the need to defend wealth that could be both common and private. In any case, it has become necessary to protect agricultural and zootechnical surpluses from neighbors’ ambitions, perhaps less fortunate in their productive tasks.

Surpluses were soon used to change them for other products owned by other tribes. There are trade and awareness that the more you can, the more you can, so what could have happened by chance happened soon in a premeditated way and meant the start of the surplus-exchange trade.

Agricultural production in the Neolithic era depended on the climatology of the area, and animal health farms frequently attacked by epidemics. Bringing the rain, or protecting the animals from evil spirits, was the task of magicians or wizards, which implied the emergence of the religious power responsible for facilitating the good functioning of community interests.

The process expounded so far has taken place over hundreds of years and not always so deeply, but it can give a very real idea of what the Neolithic Revolution meant.

Mentality and Neolithic thinking

The new living conditions, which led to the emergence of the Neolithic productive economy, brought with it changes in the way of thinking about the existence of the peoples of agriculture and zootechnics. Guarantees to have ensured food do not make survival the main concern of Neolithic man.

Of course, getting food was the dominant task, but this was not done directly. Now the important thing was to produce the land, or watch the animals not get sick and the children grow up. In this way, there is a new concern: that of fertility.

Religious practices in the Neolithic age

Thus, the religious practices of man in the Neolithic were oriented towards the idea of fertility (this idea was already present in Paleolithic but related to women, not to the nature of plants and animals). Thus, magicians, wizards and priests appeared, whose primary mission was to practice fertility enrichment rituals.

The emergence of large-scale communities has made rituals of special importance, involving a large number of individuals. Similarly, the magician or wizard has become a permanent figure whose only mission has been a religious practice.

Fertility rituals had to be protected by the forms or manifestations of nature, which soon received the category of divinity, such as the Earth, the Sun, or the rain. Regarding funerary rituals during the Neolithic period, the custom of burial of the dead has been generalized.

In the eastern Mediterranean settlements, burials were made in the same house or within cities, but in the Western European region, funerals were made away from villages, caves or pits, which, in some areas like Catalonia, were covered with plates.tomb of the Neolithic age

Often the bodies are placed in a resting position as if they were sleeping, and in the Near East, the dead were put in a mortuary position. All these circumstances suggest that the funeral cult was developed throughout the Neolithic to reach the end of the period in the megalithic (large stones) construction that indicated the cemeteries.

New techniques in the Neolithic age

The Neolithic term originally designated a type of technique for the manufacture of tools: polishing. Already in the Mesolithic, this technique has been used, whose functional significance is not significant.

The perfect finish of a polished ax does not represent a remarkable difference in its usefulness, compared to a similar piece that worked with the sculpture system.

However, the appearance of the polishing technique is likely to represent a certain desire to give the tools aesthetic value.

The perfect symmetry of many pieces, as well as the fact that their producers took care not only to polish the edges but also to the complete instrument, at least shows that their authors felt aesthetic when they did.

Many of these tools were new tools for agriculture. Much more important than the polishing technique is the look of ceramics, the value of which makes many of the Neolithic cultural classifications made of their different styles and shapes.

Neolithic pottery found in Cova de l'Or (Alicante-Spain)

Ceramics is disseminated as a logical consequence of agriculture and the new life system it imposes. Grain cereals (the first crops were grains) required adequate storage to prevent damage due to moisture or sunlight.

The harvesting periods were times when the farmer was confronted with a large amount of grain that would last a long time for consumption even without surplus, and ceramics was the solution to the problem of grain conservation.

The development of the kitchen, as well as the large agglomerations, have also improved the look of ceramics. This occurs in the Near East around 6000 BC. The first forms were rough and devoid of decoration.

Manually formatted, since the potter’s wheel did not appear until the end of the Neolithic age, the first types of decoration were simple incisions made with fists, fingers or with different objects, of which the sea shells are highlighted.

Geometric shapes soon emerged among decorative methods and, over time, painting happened to be the most common ornamental method.

Houses in Neolithic

In terms of habitation, the Neolithic involves the emergence of cities that sometimes reunited to more than a thousand inhabitants, and especially the appearance of houses, ie solid buildings in which the walls differ from the roof.

The types of houses and the materials used varied widely depending on the area, but in all cases, the remains found to prove the existence of stable buildings, the result of new sedentary life.

If the climate was not very rainy, we used the usual roof, flat roof, but in the European area, the roofs of two vegetal materials were predominant.

The most common forms were the square and the rectangular ones, although the circular ones inherited from the old huts did not disappear.

Other techniques in the Neolithic age

The Neolithic age is the time when the first wheels appear, although nothing is known about the realization of the invention and its dissemination cannot be confirmed. However, in places where it was first used, it had to favor trade in an important way.

Also, navigation has a dark origin, but in the Neolithic age, it has suffered an impulse that could be motivated by the commercial wishes of the first economically productive peoples.

The inability to navigate through the stars allowed only coastal voyages.

The emergence of agriculture meant the need to produce tools for agricultural tasks. Most of these tools were made of wood and not preserved.

However, it is obvious that it was necessary to develop the plow that originally had to be a simple stick that allowed the seed to be introduced into the ground. Among the few surviving agricultural tools, there are pointed woodcuts with small stones embedded with sharp edges.

Artistic and cultural manifestations in the Neolithic age

Artistic production in Neolithic meant a rupture of Paleolithic art. The painting of this new period has no relationship, style, theme or location with, the Magdalenian culture. Sculpture, which occurred more frequently during the Neolithic period, can not be considered as an evolution of primitive Venus.

Neolithic painting is fundamentally situated in two well-defined geographical areas: North Africa and the Spanish Levant. In both areas, pictorial styles have been developed that have many common aspects.

North African Neolithic painting

North African paintings are characterized by group representations in ceremonial or work hunting scenes. From a technical point of view, they were made with flat (red, black, yellow) colors that reproduce silhouettes; In some cases, the white color was used to highlight some details.

The support of these paintings continued to be stone, but this time not on the walls of the caves, but in the natural shelters. In terms of human forms, a certain naturalism was common, although schematic representations appeared. The most important locations are Hoggar, Tassili, and Fezzan.

Neolithic painting of the Spanish Levant

The Neolithic painting of the Spanish Levant is more important, more widespread and more varied. These predominate scenes of groups with topics similar to those in North Africa, although it highlights those dedicated to ceremonies or rituals.

From a technical point of view, these representations were made in a single color (monochrome), resulting in silhouettes that are sometimes very expressive. The Spanish Levant Paintings have always been made in rock shelters or on an exposed rock in the daylight.

Unlike the painting in North Africa, the Levant always represented the human figure in a schematic fashion, with a remarkable tendency to prolong the figures. Generally, painting from the Neolithic Age had a clear narrative trend of the collective.

The artists of this period seemed very interested in capturing the activities of groups of people as if the idea of community prevailed over that of individuality.

This concern for the human figure understood as a collectivity seems to coincide with a period when the population grew and the first settlements were made. In any case, it was obvious that there was less interest in isolated animals, typical of the Paleolithic.

Sculpture in the Paleolithic Age

The other important artistic manifestation of the Neolithic is sculpture. Sculptural shapes are very varied and vary greatly from one location to another. Female figurines that seem to be heirs of the Paleolithic Venus.

These works are very widespread and their meaning is not always clear.

Funeral sculptures in the Middle East

These are sculptures that seem to be devoted to skulls because they are clay heads or often use genuine skulls as the basis for clay.

Female figurines with children in their arms

These works are the first manifestations of what will be called a sculptural group (more than one figure). They appear in different areas.

Figures from the European area

These works for the first time show bare spaces between their shapes (the space between the arm and the foot on which it rests).

The Neolithic is perhaps the most important period in human evolution. That is why we can say that the Neolithic age is the gate of civilization.

Mesolithic: Definition And Dating Of This Intermediate Period Between The Paleolithic And The Neolithic

Mesolithic, from Greek, “mesos” (middle) and “Lithos” (stone), the Mesolithic is considered as an intermediate bridge between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

Mesolithic: Definition and dating

This period is characterized by the development and improvement of superior paleolithic techniques and by offering the first timely samples of the “Neolithic Revolution”.

However, this period is established with a general nature, as prehistory can cover different periods depending on the regions because many of them have remained in Neolithic when some have already succeeded in entering the metal age.

Thus, the Middle East begins earlier than in Europe when it was still in Magdalen. Its date range between 10,000 and 7,000 years. B.C. In Europe, this period begins around 7,000 BC.

From the point of view of life, the Mesolithic does not bring much change in the previous period. Only improving the quality of life should be highlighted on the basis of better food-making techniques and the beginning of a period of withdrawal from glaciation, which gave rise to a more favorable climate.

Rooms are no longer built in rock, and huts are grouped into small villages.

drawing from the Mesolithic period

The most widespread feature of the Mesolithic period was the use of small stone tools called microlith. These are objects that rarely exceed three centimeters and where the sculpture technique has reached maximum perfection.

In the field of technology, we find some tools dedicated to fishing, the finality, and utility of which is surprising. The emergence of these fishing gears should have been linked to the gradual disappearance of large mammals at the end of the last ice age, which has led to an increase in fish consumption.

Also, a large number of objects dedicated to personal decoration appear in Mesolithic. But, above all, it highlights the domestication of species such as goat and sheep, which signifies the first signs of animal economics.

Agriculture in Mesolithic

As far as agriculture is concerned, it is not certain that it was practiced in a rigorous way, ie the planting of a seed whose fruit was harvested later, but it seems that the Mesolithic people had the habit of making massive wild cereal collections.

However, during this period the important change from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic economy was made; communities begin to produce food. For this reason, this stage of human history has first begun in the Middle East, where natural resources have allowed human groups to become sedentary.

The main species of grain and domestic animals already axing in the wild in ecosystems in the Near East.

In fact, about 7,000-8,000 years ago, harvester-hunters already knew how the life cycles of plants and animals were working, they did not nurture them for thousands of years, so it would not be difficult to adapt to the new times.

The evolution of agriculture did not emerge immediately but was a gradual process of harvesting, hunting and fishing activities, which are currently practiced by some primitive peoples and which was most likely established in domesticated animals.

There is evidence that the holdings have been mixed, combining agriculture and livestock. Domestication served two basic functions: ensuring the supply of meat without hunting and using animals as labor.

It is known from the archaeological find that the dog was the first domestic animal 8,000 years ago, and later the sheep, the ox, and the pig. Thus, a ” Neolithic revolution ” was produced when agriculture and animal domestication were discovered to be perfect, combined to survive in new sedentary living.

On the other hand, in the field of art, the paintings of the Mediterranean area should be highlighted, with some specific features that will need to be developed throughout the Neolithic Age.

Paleolithic: Human evolution in the Paleolithic Age

Paleolithic, etymologically, means old stone. Prehistoric first used the term to describe a time when tools were made by carving stones. Paleolithic Age is the longest period in prehistoric and major known deposits are located in Europe (France, Germany and Spain), Africa (Tanzania and the Mediterranean) and Asia (north of the Arabian Peninsula and Beijing).

The first period of the Paleolithic knows very little because the only information that can be obtained is practically coming out of the rough stones that are often difficult to classify.

Middle Paleolithic deposits and is rich in a wide variety of tools so that information can be obtained from them are higher but still limited.

Skull in Gibraltar (Ethnology Museum of Madrid), on a Neanderthal (Homo sapiens group) female who lived in the Middle Paleolithic

It needs to look at Homo sapiens Upper Paleolithic in order to provide an overview of how the lives of these people were able to show up

Economy and society in the Palaeolithic age

Thousands of years ago, prehistoric humans were merely imitating what they saw around them. Like any living thing, they were limited to take from nature what they needed, since agriculture and livestock continued for a long time to come to be dominated. Fruits and hunting wild animals that live in the environment were the only means of subsistence.

Residents of Paleolithic were, therefore, hunters and gatherers. Their relationship with nature was totally disastrous and practiced a subsistence economy.
Everything was happening in their lives revolved around these activities, and if the environment could not find enough habitat were forced to migrate elsewhere, forcing them to practice a nomadic life to provide food.

The social structure in the Paleolithic age was conditioned by the needs of survival.

Between humans and animals must remain a kind of ecological balance, so the survival of the species is guaranteed. Therefore, no need to break this balance, people had to move every time hunting was not enough.

This economic system or, if you prefer, this relationship with nature has conditioned many aspects of Paleolithic man.

Regardless of the fact that man is a social species, seeking to live in the group soon discovered that hunting of large mammals (mammoth, reindeer, bison, deer, etc.) was easier if they have worked for many people, to one.

Capturing these animals it was often made by traps (large potholes, for example) that require too much work for one person. On the other hand, it does not make sense to hunt mammoth to feed a single individual. In this way, social groups were about 20 or 30 individuals.

This seemingly low number was ideal to prepare traps, eating meat hunted and also to move easily from one place to another in search of food.

This constant change of residence shows that Paleolithic man was not placed in permanent settlements, and therefore did not build houses with durable materials. Forced to chase prey, he simply raised or simple cottages sought natural sanctuaries such as caves or rock shelters.

We do not know if social groups organized a hierarchy of power, but it is easy to assume that those individuals better prepared to hunt or more ingenuity to prepare traps had to exercise some control functions to organize tasks aimed at obtaining food.

Although it is a form very timid, there must be a certain division of labor, that the strongest individuals pledged to hunt and prepare their weapons, and women, who were also responsible for children should take care of preparing skins and harvesting tasks plants and fruits.

In short, attributions were distributed according to the ability of each group member. Regarding the origin of these groups, it is likely that they were family clans with a common ancestor.

In terms of the Upper Paleolithic age, they have formed meetings of various clans in some areas to form a tribe.

Paleolithic: Mentality and thinking in the Paleolithic Age

To determine which was the mentality and concerns that occupied the mind of man from the Paleolithic must appeal, as in other areas, the remains known about the activities of these people di Paleolithic age. These remains, whether tools or artistic, have a universal constant: animals.

If we consider that more than 35% of people under the age of 20 years and that only five out of 100 managed to overcome 40 years, it will be easy to understand nutrition, or survival, fundamental of these nomadic hunters.

The animal was, therefore, a symbol of life; if there were animals, survival was assured.

Bison, animal Paleolithic

A carved buffalo horn reindeer (Madeleine – France)

Thus, early Upper Paleolithic, when the first artistic events, which are presented as drawings of animals.

Uncommon, but first moments when art appears, are schematic drawings of male and female gender or sculptures so-called “Venus” (female statuettes with very marked sexual characters).

If animals represented means food and therefore the possibility of life, “Venus” and gender representations meant fertility, that desire, and guarantee that clan may have enough members to ensure their survival and mutual assistance.

The strength of each clan depends on whether its membership has not decreased and food have not lessened. Paleolithic man, reflected from a very early age these concerns, even in his early artistic events.

It is difficult to determine whether these people now 30 000 or 40 000 years have developed a kind of religion. It is possible for them to worship the forces of nature or some animal species that were highly dependent (like other primitive peoples who have survived to this day).

However, the analysis suggests artistic forms created more magical than religious practices. Animal representations were made or engraved on whalers or painted on cave walls.

Paleolithic shows that man paleolithic considered animal head carved handle ax, gives more power against that animal he doing nothing but practicing a ritual through which thought became pet owner by possession image its.

These sculptures and drawings depicted on the walls of caves gave them paleolithic people thinking that they had the spirit of the animal and hunting would have been more favorable.

If the cave paintings were a work of magical rituals, “Venus” fertility would have been magical amulets to promote procreation. The character of these statues is given its small size (10-12 cm), making them objects for personal use.

It is difficult to interpret the rituals that were practiced by the end of the Middle Paleolithic. The funeral is abundant in the Paleolithic, and those that were found offers features so specific that only allow inferring that the Palaeolithic in these people has been a concern for death which made them bury their colleagues.

However, glancing in the Paleolithic age, and the Middle Paleolithic no evidence of different religions around these skulls, though not know what symbolism could have these rituals.

Paleolithic: gear manufacturing techniques in the Palaeolithic Age

Hunting activities of Paleolithic man led him to deal almost exclusively manufacture weapons for capturing prey and manufacture of small tools for cutting meat or tanneries. The material used for their utensils was stone, so-called lithic industry (Greek LEOAMPA stone).

It is logical to think that the time of Homo habilis was first used many tools of wood, but they did not pass the test of time and became mere fossilized remains.

Stone tools from the Paleolithic period some common characteristics:

  • it is carved tools and carving method used, the degree of perfection and meticulous work, so they can be set at different stages of their processing.sharp stone gravel to between culture Paleolithic era

The lower Paleolithic, Homo habilis begin to produce crude tools, giving rise to so-called gravel culture.

These are simple stones that, when hit, break and thus provides a cutting edge; The method is improved when the rock is hit on both sides to produce a sharpened edge, although it is still hard.

sharp rock Paleolithic age

Production of these early instruments meant for thousands of years, the only manifestation of the production capacity of people still lagging behind.

At the end of the Lower Palaeolithic process improvement tools manmade accelerated significantly technique flakes.

This technique, which gave us the best examples of stone tools consisted in hitting a nucleus, usually made of flint or quartzite, with the intention of removing a fragment that provides tip surface which was subsequently retouched multiple small strokes and precise.

Thus they were obtained which could be shaped axes and scrapers for leather tanning works.

The Middle Paleolithic, stone tools were diversified and improved. Often, scrapers and knives were introduced at the end of a broken bone, which served as a handle.

Different tools built with bone during Magdalenian or late Paleolithic age

In the Upper Paleolithic, carving techniques have reached full development.

Such spears have been made or the arrow tips, sickles, knives, handle axis, the first axes, and bone hooks. Most of these tools have already a genuine specialized function because of a perfect finish.

The appearance was a revolution in art spring hunting

During this period when the first spring. This invention has brought a revolution in the art of hunting since they injure the animal without having to go near him.

This advantage, together with greater capacity lethal darts over other weapons significantly promote hunting and ought to contribute to population growth that occurs at the end of the Upper Paleolithic.

Paleolithic: housing techniques and fire in the Palaeolithic Age

It seems clear that the fire has been used by man since the Paleolithic inferior, but it is not known from when he dominated.

Fear and dread of harboring those beings, hiding on hearing thunder and its manifestation powerful as lightning, went into another phase of search and knowledge to use those energies.

Originally supposed to take fire from fires that occur in storms and rays would have long maintained on.

The discovery of any system which would be produced a flame could be the result of chance (such as spark produced when hitting a stone from which the obtained tools his) or experience (heating by friction), but in any case, the possession of these techniques and, above all, dissemination must have been a load of hundreds or thousands of years.

The fire was originally used to warm to illuminate and cast irons caves or places of residence. Use to roast venison used later and cooking techniques were not developed until the Neolithic.

Regarding forms of habitation from the Paleolithic period, they were used as natural sanctuaries (rock shelters and caves) and chalets or huts made by men. These cabins are generally circular or oval, and the materials used branches and trunks, covered, sometimes clay.

In areas where vegetation Arbor was not abundant, they built huts of mud and in Siberia, a kind of tent with animal skins that allow installation and removal of camps faster and thus could better pursue reindeer, which changed constantly looking places pastures.

All these structures are common features in not distinguish walls and roof (what differentiates a hut of a house), to adapt to the environment in terms of construction materials and works to be simple to host a nomadic life, be easily built or transported.

Paleolithic: artistic manifestations Paleolithic Age

The first artistic manifestations of prehistoric man show in Upper Paleolithic and, depending on the medium used or the materials or objects that occurred can be classified into two categories:

  1. Art parietal (wall)
  2. Art furniture (objects)

Paleolithic: parietal art in the Palaeolithic Age

Commonly referred to as ” cave painting ” is made of paintings or engravings and is used to support the walls of caves and rock shelters; It is located fundamentally in southern France and along the Cantabrian Mountains in Spain.

Paintings first appeared in the Aurignacian period, but are confusing, difficult to identify. The Solutrean period must wait in order to find pictorial representations defined.

However, the great period of painting paleolithic is the Magdalenian period, which are the best paintings of Lascaux, Font-de-Gaume, Rouffignac and Les Trois Freres in France; or those of Altamira, Puente Viesgo, Pind Peña Candamo, Tito Bustillo and Parpalló in Spain.

Paintings of Altamira (Spain) dating from the Paleolithic age

In most of these caves were discovered paintings or engravings belonging to periods earlier than the Magdalenian period (last period of the Upper Paleolithic), but the best and most abundant representations they are are the Magdalenian period.

Hunts and magical practices Paleolithic were faithfully reflected in these caves, the predominant theme is animals. Creative ability was enormous, as the number of representations. The animals were represented horse and buffalo, deer and elephants followed by (mammoth elephant).

Representations of human bodies whole are very few, not as representations hand painted directly or negative (placing the hand on the rock was painted around her, leaving her figure). There are many drawings of signs or traces of unknown significance.

From a technical standpoint, you Distinction three types of representation:

  • polychrome painting,
  • monochrome
  • and engraving (with or without painting).

They emphasize the polychrome representations commonly used black outline and details such as eyes and other colors to plump figure.

To obtain the raw material of various colors used paleolithic artists have used what nature gave them, and some techniques for preparing raw pigment. They use different types of earth ocher, iron oxide (limonite and hematite) to yellow and red, manganese dioxide and carbon black and white gypsum.

These pigments have been mixed with crushed stone and substances such as fat, resin or blood, which acted as a binder, giving the mixture a paste-liquid texture which allowed it to stretch and to fix the rock.

Application pigment directly with your fingers or using sticks with a flattened end, a spatula or brush made of horsehair. A technique sometimes used to blow hollow bones, which allow spraying of paint on the walls.

To highlight the contours of animals and gain volume stone reliefs taken advantage of in order to show some of the silhouettes of the animal, providing a more accurate representation, allowing us to talk about the natural character of these paintings.

Paleolithic: Art furniture in the Palaeolithic Age

It was discovered on the surface of tools or objects whose utility agreed we do not know (such as the so-called “control sticks”) horn, bone, ivory or stone. Diffusion coincides with that of cave art while extending a little more the central, northern Italy and some points of the Russo-Siberian.

Most of these artistic manifestations are engravings and sculptures representing animals (especially horses, like mural painting) or sexual signs. All these items of furniture art are reduced scale, suggesting that they were pieces that man or woman you wear them.

Art furniture offers authentic samples of composition were produced when the figure should represent an animal on a concrete surface (bone or horn).

Venus sculpture paleolithical age

A sculpture “Venus” Paleolithic

These are small statuettes of female sexual well-developed characters that were found in France, Central Europe, Italy, and Russia. Some of these small sculptures have achieved a remarkable level of geometric abstraction, as in the case of Venus Lespugue (France). They emphasize, along with it, on that of Willendorf (Germany) and that of Grimaldi (Italy).

ARTICLE:  Paleolithic: Human evolution in the Palaeolithic age 

PREHISTORY: CHRONOLOGY, STUDY OF PREHISTORY, STUDY METHODS AND INVOLVED SCIENCES

What is prehistory? Prehistory is the term used to refer to the long history that occurs when a person comes in increments until you produce the first written documents.

To know how was this long period, it is necessary to resort to the remains they have left people of those times. “Reading” these remains show that although slow, prehistoric man-made giant leaps in what is often called history.

The study of prehistory

So far more than 150 years, all the knowledge I had about the beginnings of humanity were likely mythical. Currently, however, prehistory is studied with the most sophisticated scientific advances. The rationale behind the remarkable change of attitude towards this subject is nothing but the complexity involved in trying to answer the questions that can be asked about the beginning of human history.

The evolution theory implies acceptance that there is a precise moment in which to speak of intelligent human beings. The process of evolution over millions of years and the first beings who can be considered ancestors of modern man were races or species that lived thousands of years ago without develops, sometimes up to total extinction.

All these difficulties have made studies prehistory be oriented materials found. Analysis of these remains has allowed establishing several stages, the first of which has more than two million years. The following are progressively shorter as the quantity and variety of archaeological remains in the same period increased. This means that the beginning of mankind has been very slow and that in those times, the smallest discovery was an advance which sometimes has not been exceeded in one million years.

The few remnants of prehistoric geographical distribution sometimes confused them and a great variety of morphologically with these remains are studies Prehistory to undergo constant changes every time when a new site.

Methods of study and science involved

Methodology prehistoric knowledge is mainly based on archaeological sources. It deals with the study of human techniques used in the manufacture of tools. It is possible to reconstruct room categories to recognize debris kitchen, ritual and artistic events, social organization, physical environment and appearance of our ancestors.

For the study needed auxiliary science competition:

  • Typology: studying industries lithic, bone and ceramic;
  • Stratigraphy: shows the order and the conditions under which the sediments were deposited with respect to time;
  • Paleontology: analyzes and classifies species, reports on when they lived warns relations hunting or domestication, and a fixed part of human nutritional conditions;
  • Palynology: its purpose is to study the technique increases, and the pollen grains of the plant to reconstruct the landscape;
  • Palentology: try, with actual knowledge societies “primitive” ways to reproduce the behavior of prehistoric man;
  • Physical anthropology: human remains interested in their evolution and their dispersion in space and time;
  • Paleoclimatology: reproducing the climatic conditions of a period, either by absolute procedures (curves of solar radiation, oxygen, radioactive, etc.) or by the combination of fauna and flora;
  • Timeline: provides a temporal relationship (relative chronology) or data (absolute chronology). Radioactive methods (carbon 14, potassium-argon, etc.) are complemented by others, such as paleomagnetism, dendrochronology; or glaciers.
    Regarding varves can say that it is a technique that analyzes the temporary lake bottom sediments, which are arranged in thin layers of fine clay alternative materials, and other coarser; each pair of layers (fine-coarse) marks a freeze-thaw cycle, ie an annual cycle in a climate periglaţional region, allowing a chronological study very closely.
  • Petrographic: indicates the composition of the materials used and their origin.

Prehistory: Timeline – Long Road to man

Prehistory arrangement in different stages has varied over time and was highlighted on as new archaeological remains.Prehistory: Steps prehistory

Thus there are two major periods: Paleolithic and Neolithic, with an interim period, Mesolithic.

Prehistory: Timeline

Paleolithic

Paleolithic overall has a duration of approximately 2.5 million, is divided into three periods:

  • Lower Paleolithic: about 2.4 million years,
  • Middle Paleolithic: 60,000 years
  • Paleolithic higher: 40,000 years.

Lower Paleolithic

It was the era in which the process of humanization was formed in a species like Homo. Decide if these first beings were men or not, it seems to make sense; in any case, was being able to make some tools, for what was called H. habilis. Technical progress of this period was very slow, as required by the development process itself and as demonstrated by the length.

Middle Paleolithic

Age is showing the first primitive Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens Neanderthal), although it is possible that these species have disappeared and it was only another test of the evolutionary process to develop a truly intelligent species.

However, Neanderthal man was a being more developed and therefore was able to produce more varied and precise objects. This race should be practiced certain funeral rites for their peers.

Palaeolithic higher

Age is direct ancestors of modern man, with an age of about 40,000 years, are so-called Homo sapiens. Many remains are known of this species, but the type Cro-Magnon (France) and Grimaldi (northern Italy).

These people are the first to produce artistic events, in addition to manufacturing a wide range of tools becoming more specialized.

Mesolithic

Mesolithic is announcing an interim period Neolithic because it presents the first animal forms and primitive agriculture, who was charged with predatory activities of hunting and gathering, typical Paleolithic.

This period came from the desire to classify certain advanced cultures located in the Middle East, although after Mesolithic cultures were considered all appear useful stone small (2-3 cm), so-called Micro Lite.

Neolithic

This is the time they are available for future foundations of ancient civilizations, many of them began to develop in the Neolithic period. It is where agriculture and livestock are imposed, the cause of these remarkable changes, we are talking about the Neolithic revolution when referring to this period.

Prehistory: The evolution of tools and gear

Human type of this is already a modern man, Homo sapiens little differently late Paleolithic. From a technical standpoint, Neolithic pottery and tissue appearance require constant improvement of its vessels and the emergence of new, dedicated to agriculture.

Prehistory: human evolution

At the end of the period the use of the first metals is known, and although the occurrence of metallurgy took place in Neolithic societies, the name of the age of metals or the age of bronze and the age of iron is frequent to indicate more precisely the moment in which each of these metals predominates.

Metallurgy spread was very uneven and, in any case, it appears the iron, there are already many people who developed writing and therefore are outside prehistory.